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Works Cited


OUT on the LEFT COAST was developed from extensive research using various primary source materials at Lambda Archives (LASD), ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, and online.

Pre-1969: Before Stonewall

Amero, Richard. “Panama-California Exposition,”  chapters 5-6. San Diego History Center.
Bell, Stephen. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, March 6, 2008. LASD.
Bérubé, Allan. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War II. New York: Free Press, 1990.
“Brass Rail at 25 Years.” San Diego Update, February 22, 1980. LASD.
Burke, Pat. “What Does Gay Pride Mean To You?” San Diego Update, June 15, 1979. LASD.
Dilno, Jeri. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, February 4, 1990. LASD.
“Ed from the Brass Rail.” Pacific Coast Times, August 31, 1973. LASD.
Faderman, Lillian. The Gay Revolution: The Story of the Struggle. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.
Graham, John. Interview with Kate Clark. Queen’s Circle, 2016. parkeology.org/queenscircle.
Heathers, Peggy and Cynthia Lawrence-Wallace. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, February 19, 1990. LASD.
Jessop, Robert “Jess.” Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, 1990. LASD.
Murray-Ramirez, Nicole. Interview with Ellen Holzman. Trans Narratives, August 7, 2015. transnarratives.org.
Murray-Ramirez, Nicole. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, 1990. LASD.
“2004 Honoree: Mr. Clint Johnson.” San Diego LGBT Center Wall of Honor. thecentersd.org/about/wall-of-honor.html.

1969: The Turning Point

Bell, Stephen. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, March 6, 2008. LASD.
“Gay Liberation Front of San Diego: Statement of Purpose.” The Prodigal, August 2, 1970, p. 4. LASD.
Jessop, Robert “Jess.” Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, 1990. LASD.

1970: Community Groups and the First “Gay-In”

“1970 Was Some Year.” The Prodigal, January 10, 1971, p. 4. LASD.
Bell, Stephen. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, March 6, 2008. LASD.
Dilno, Jeri. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, February 4, 1990. LASD.
Farrell, David. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, May 1985. LASD.
Gulley, Gary. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, April 2008. LASD.
Hayes, Frances. “AS denies $4,161 request for Exploring School.” San Diego State Daily Aztec, March 19, 1970. LASD.
Puryear, Bill, “Social Report.” The Prodigal, August 30, 1970, p. 1. LASD.
Tres Femme Advertisement. The Prodigal, August 30, 1970, p. 4. LASD.

1971: A Hotline, a Protest, and “Gay-In 2”

Bell, Stephen. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. 6 Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, March 6, 2008. LASD.
“G.L.F. (S.D.).” The Prodigal, February 21, 1971, p. 6. LASD.
Michels, Bernie. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, June 1992. LASD.
Murray-Ramirez, Nicole. Interview with Ellen Holzman. Trans Narratives, August 7, 2015. transnarratives.org.
“Notices.” The Prodigal, December 6, 1971, p. 2. LASD.
Royal Halloween Ball flyer, 1971. LASD.
“That Was A Fortnight That Was.” The Prodigal, October [?] 1971, p. 5. LASD.

1972-3: “The Center” is Born and the Final Gay-In

Bell, Stephen. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, March 6, 2008.LASD.
“Coming Events.” The Prodigal, September 10, 1973, p. 5. LASD.
David, Charles. “Opining.” The Prodigal, February 4, 1973, p. 2. LASD.
David, Charles. “Carnival.” The Prodigal, April 1, 1973, p. 4. LASD.
“Gay Pride Week San Diego ‘73.” The Prodigal, June 3, 1973, p. 5. LASD.
“GLF.” The Prodigal, February 1973, p. 9. LASD.
Gulley, Gary. Interview with Frank Nobiletti.
Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, April 2008. LASD.
Heathers, Peggy and Cynthia Lawrence-Wallace. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, February 19, 1990. LASD.
Michels, Bernie. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, June 1992. LASD.
Murray-Ramirez, Nicole. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, 1990. LASD.

1974: Gay Pride Week Ends With a March

“8 Arrested On Felony Sex Counts.” San Diego Union, September 13, 1974, B-5. Bernie Michels Collection, LASD.
Murray-Ramirez, Nicole. Interview with Ellen Holzman. Trans Narratives, August 7, 2015. transnarratives.org.

1975: “Gay Pride (Come OUT To A Celebration)”

Dilno, Jeri. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, February 4, 1990. John Eberly CollectionLASD.
Gay Pride flyer. 1975. John Eberly Collection, LASD.
Heathers, Peggy and Cynthia Lawrence-Wallace. Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, February 19, 1990. LASD.
Moore, Doug. “San Diego’s Lambda Pride: 1975-1985.” San Diego Pride Guidebook, 1985. LASD.
San Diego Lambda Pride Parade Souvenir Issue, 5 June 1981. San Diego Subject Files, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, University of Southern California Libraries.

1976: “Gay Spirit”

1976 Gay Pride Parade guidelines. John Eberly Collection, LASD.
Dilno, Jeri. “Interview with San Diego Pride.” Youtube.
Moore, Doug. “San Diego’s Lambda Pride: 1975-1985.” San Diego Pride Guidebook, 1985. LASD.
Murray-Ramirez, Nicole. Interview with Ellen Holzman. Trans Narratives, August 7, 2015. transnarratives.org.
Stepping Stone San Diego. “Who We Are.” steppingstonesd.org.

1977: “Unity (A Day With Human Rights Is Like A Day Without Sunshine) / No More Miamis”

Johnson, Gloria. Interview with San Diego Pride. Youtube.
Moore, Doug. “San Diego’s Lambda Pride: 1975-1985.” San Diego Pride Guidebook, 1985. LASD.
Wilson, Bridget. “Radical Right Attack Has United Community.” The Gayzette, 1980s[?].

1978: “No More Lies!”

Dilno, Jeri. “United – Perhaps It’s Not The Answer.” Yes Magazine, September 15, 1978. LASD.
Moore, Doug. “San Diego’s Lambda Pride: 1975-1985.” San Diego Pride Guidebook, 1985. LASD.
News Briefs. Yes Magazine, September 15, 1978. LASD.
Wilson, Bridget. “Radical Right Attack Has United Community.” The Gayzette, 1980s[?]. LASD.

1979: “Remember Stonewall”

Burke, Pat. “What Does Gay Pride Mean To You?” San Diego Update, June 15, 1979. LASD.
“First Gay Pride Parade Committee Meeting Held.” San Diego Update, April 4, 1979. LASD.
Jessop, Robert “Jess.” Interview with Frank Nobiletti. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, 1990. LASD.
“Kolendar Reverses Past Policies; Wants Lesbian/ Gay Male Police.” San Diego Update, July 12, 1979. LASD.
“Out & About Town.” San Diego Update, August 24, 1979. LASD.
“Pride Hails Remember Stonewall.” San Diego Update, June 15, 1979. LASD.
“Pride Picnic Biggest Event Yet In Gay S.D.” San Diego Update, September 7, 1979. LASD.
“Taking the Offensive: The Gay Alliance for Equal Rights.” San Diego Update, March 23, 1979. LASD.
“The Lights Came On…” San Diego Update, April 20, 1979. LASD.

1980: “In Celebration We Are…”

“700 Attend San Diego Pride March, Rally.” Update, June 27, 1980. LASD.
Burke, Pat. “C.S.S. Funds Improve, Renamed Lesbian and Gay Community Center.” San Diego Update, January 11, 1980. LASD.
Burke, Pat. “Tijuana Gays Form First Civil Rights Group.” San Diego Update, March 7, 1980. LASD.
Burke, Pat. “June 21 Parade Climaxes Gay Pride Month.” Update, May 2, 1980. LASD.
Burke, Pat. Voeller Named Grand Marshall of Pride Parade.” Update, May 16, 1980. LASD.
“In Celebration We Are…” Update, June 27, 1980. LASD.
Linstrot, Vandi. “Letter: Lesbian Visibility.” San Diego Update, February 6, 1981. LASD.
Moore, Doug. “San Diego’s Lambda Pride: 1975-1985.” San Diego Pride Guidebook, 1985. LASD.
San Diego Lambda Pride Parade Souvenir Issue, June 5, 1981. San Diego Subject Files, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, University of Southern California Libraries.

1981: “United For Our Rights”

Burke, Pat. “Pete Wilson’s Office Says Gay Pride is Unacceptable.” Update, June 12, 1981. LASD.
Coshow, Carla. Interview with Lambda Archives of San Diego. Lambda Archives Audio & Video Interviews, 2007. LASD.
“Final Plans Set For June 13 Pride Celebration.” Update, May 29, 1981. LASD.
Goodman, Carl. “250 Women March to Stress Lesbian Issues.” Update, June 12, 1981. LASD.
“Parade Doubles Size; Band Gets Keys to City.” Update, June 27, 1981. LASD.
“Tijuana’s First Gay Pride.” Update, June 27, 1981. LASD.

1982: “Proud-Diversified-United”

“82 Pride Plans Reveal Theme.” Update, April 23, 1982. LASD.
“Parade Plans.” Update, April 23, 1982. LASD.
“Pride Festival Moved to Allow Beer On Site, Committee Says.” Update, May 7, 1982. LASD.
“San Diego Participation Adds Up to Great Day.” Update, June 18, 1982. LASD.
“San Diego Set for Pride Fest.” Update, June 4, 1982. LASD.
Scott, David. “10 Years of Pride.”
Unisun Magazine, June 1984.  LASD.

1983: “I Love Being Out”

“50 Units to March in San Diego Pride Parade.” Update, May 18, 1983. LASD.
Burke, Pat and Fred Scholl. “Police Nix Gay Pride Parade.” San Diego Update, April 20, 1983. LASD.
Davis, Lair. “Lair About Town.” San Diego Gayzette, June 16, 1983. LASD.
Davis, Lair. “We Loved Being Out!” San Diego Gayzette, June 16, 1983. LASD.
“Newsbriefs.” Update, March 23, 1983. LASD.
West, Erin. “We, the People, Do Hereby Proclaim Saturday to be Lesbian/ Gay Pride Day.” San Diego Gayzette, June 9, 1983. LASD.

1984: “Celebration ‘84, A Decade of Pride”

Biegeleisen, Wendy Sue. Interview with San Diego Pride. YouTube.
Burke, Pat. “Religion, Murray Made Pride Issues.” Update, June 6, 1984. LASD.
Burke, Pat. “Decade of Pride.” Update, June 6, 1984. LASD.
Burke, Pat. “Pride Founder Resigns.” Update, May 16, 1984. LASD.
“Hedecock Avoids a Gay Proclamation.” Update, June 13, 1984. LASD.
Kehoe, Christine, ed. “The Parade Is On Its Way.” The
Gayzette, May 24, 1984. LASD.
Manley, David. Interview with San Diego Pride. YouTube.
“Newsbriefs.” Update, January 30, 1985. LASD.
“Nicole: A Legend In Her Own Mind.” Update, June 6, 1984. LASD.
Pride Parade & Festival Guidebook, 1984. LASD.
Pride Guide, 1987. LASD.
San Diego Lesbian and Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1991. LASD.
“San Diego Pride ‘84.” Update, June 13, 1984. LASD.

1985: “Share the Pride”

“27 Benefits in 11 Weeks Panned by Lambda Pride.” Update, March 29, 1985. LASD.
Biegeleisen, Wendy Sue. Interview with San Diego Pride. YouTube.
Burke, Pat. “10,000 Celebrate Pride.” Update, June 12, 1985. LASD.
Burke, Pat. “Lambda Pride Board Should Resign.” Update, June 26, 1985. LASD.
Duffer, Rick. Photo: Fundamentalist picket The Flame. Update, March 29, 1985. LASD.
“Exhausting Gay Pride Weekend In Store.” Update, June 5, 1985. LASD.
Lesbian & Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1993. LASD.
“Newsbriefs.” Update, January 30, 1985. LASD.
Pride Guide, 1987. LASD.
“Run For Pride & Prizes.” Update, June 5, 1985. LASD.
San Blise, Mary Lou. “Crisis Attracts 60 To Lambda Pride.” Update, June 26, 1985. LASD.
“Share The Pride In ‘85.” Update, June 5, 1985. LASD.

1986: “Forward Together”

Burke, Pat. “Lambda Pride Board, Members Shrink.” San Diego Update, January 29, 1986. LASD.
Lesbian and Gay Pride Official Souvenir Issue, 1999. LASD.
“Parade Will Be a Celebration!” San Diego Update, April 9, 1986. LASD.
San Diego Lambda Pride Guidebook, 1986. LASD.
Scholl, Fred. “Gay Latinos Meet in Tijuana.” San Diego Update, January 29, 1986. LASD.
“Should 86 Pride Be a March?” San Diego Update, April 2, 1986. LASD.
Traitel, Anne. “Gays blame police for parade fight – Probe is ordered into allegations.” Evening Tribune (San Diego, CA), June 13, 1986.
Wong, Jeannie. “Gays find that (almost) everyone loves a parade.” San Diego Union, June 8, 1986.

1987: “Making History”

Himaka, Mitch. “Cop Files suit over bite by gay – $500,00 asked for injury during parade last year.” San Diego Union, June 9, 1987.
Jahn, Ed. “Mayor Makes History in Gay Pride March.” San Diego Union, June 14, 1987.
Lambda Pride Guidebook, 1987. LASD.
LaRue, Steve. “Kroc gives $1 million for AIDS research,” San Diego Union, December 17, 1987: A-1.
Lesbian and Gay Pride Official Souvenir Issue, 1999. LASD.
Ristine, Jeff. “City to back AIDS project – $150,000 to be committed to local agencies,” Evening Tribune (San Diego, CA), June 04, 1987: B-1.

1988: “Here…And Here To Stay!” / “Rightfully Proud”

Balint, Kathryn. “Bias over AIDS in housing, jobs barred by city,” Evening Tribune (San Diego, CA), February 09, 1988: B-1.
Fundi and M. Corinne Mackey. “LAGADU.” Official Souvenir Program, 1990, p. 19-20. LASD.
Parade Fest Guidebook
, 1988. LASD.
Polk, William. “Pastor Owens sent to prison in bombing try,” Evening Tribune (San Diego, CA), June 20, 1988: A-1. 
Repard, Pauline. “15,000 watch 14th Gay, Lesbian Pride parade and events – Speaker denounces Bush and Dukakis as homophobes,” The San Diego Union, June 12, 1988: B-3.
“San Diego Gears Up.” National Update, vol. 1.13 (1988). LASD.

1989: “A Generation of Pride”

Griffin, Sharon. “Up to 10,000 gather to see Gay/Lesbian Pride Parade,” San Diego Union, June 11, 1989: B-3.
Lesbian & Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1993. LASD.
Peterson, Karla. “Blazing Redheads to play at Pride fest,” San Diego Union, June 09, 1989: D-7.
Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1990. LASD.
Reynolds, Christopher. “Stonewall Anniversary,” San Diego Union, June 07, 1989: D-4.

1990: “Look to the Future: A New Decade of Pride”

Baza, Larry. Interview with San Diego Pride. YouTube.
Flynn, Pat. “City Council votes to approve ordinance protecting gay rights,” San Diego Union, April 04, 1990: B-1.
Lesbian and Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1990. LASD.
Mayer, Joe. Interview with San Diego Pride. YouTube.
San Diego Lesbian and Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program
, 1991. LASD.
Smith, Lara. “Future of gay and lesbian pride will be focus of weekend festival,” San Diego Union, June 08, 1990: D-10.

1991: “Together in Pride / Conjunto en Orgullo”

Blake, Barbra. Interview with San Diego Pride. YouTube.
San Diego Lesbian and Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1991. LASD.
Sforza, Teri. “Gays and lesbians protest policy – They march to Naval Hospital in objecting to military ban,” San Diego Union, July 21, 1991: B-1.
Taylor, Kathie L. “Sheriff’s hiring booth at gay fest a ‘new deal’,” Evening Tribune (San Diego, CA), July 22, 1991: B-1.

1992: “Pride=Power”

“ACT UP/ San Diego.” Lesbian & Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1993. LASD.
Barfield, Chet. “Indian group to participate in gay parade – Minority within minority also will bless festival,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 15, 1992: B-2.
Lesbian and Gay Pride Souvenir Program, 1992. LASD.
Sevilla, Graciela. “Gay and lesbian festival draws thousands – Highlights include women’s health fair, appearance by chief,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 19, 1992: B-3.

1993: “A Family of Pride: Our Family, Our Values, Our Celebration”

Horvitz, Paul F. ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Don’t Pursue’ Is White House’s Compromise Solution : New U.S. Military Policy Tolerates Homosexuals,” New York Times, July 20 1993.
Jahn, Ed. “Gay pride parade attracts thousands,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 18, 1993: B-1.
Lesbian & Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1993. LASD.
Lesbian & Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1995. LASD.
Lesbian & Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1999. LASD.
Turegano, Preston. “Festival moves closer to the heart of things,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 15, 1993: Night & Day, 33.

1994: ““Honoring Our Past, Securing Our Future”

Clark, Cheryl. “Jubilant gay pride parade draws a record 60,000 – Some join 20th-year festivities in solidarity with the marchers,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 17, 1994: B-1.
Clark, Cheryl. “Lesbians turn out in city’s first ‘Dyke March’,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 10, 1994: B-4.
Covarrubias, Amanda. “San Diego Gays Celebrate Clout with 20th Pride Parade,” Daily News of Los Angeles, July 17, 1994: N13.
Dibble, Sandra. “Anti-gay rally draws 200 for cheers, jeers,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 17, 1994: B-2.
Lesbian and Gay Pride Souvenir Issue, 1994. LASD.

1995: “Out & Free”

Clark, Cheryl. “Gay parade struts its stuff in Hillcrest as 60,000 watch,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 16, 1995: B-1.
Lesbian and Gay Pride Official Souvenir Issue, 1995. LASD.
Lesbian and Gay Pride Official Souvenir Program, 1996. LASD.

1996: “Spotlight on Freedom”

Keough, Caroline. “Gays proclaim pride at 22nd annual parade,” San Diego Union-Tribune, July 28, 1996: B-1.
Kucher, Karen and Clark Brooks. “Thousands protested — even if ignored – Groups demonstrated loyalty to many causes,” San Diego Union-Tribune, August 17, 1996: B-1, 7B-12.